Science to Prove Innocence...or Guilt

General Forensic Science

Department of Forensic Sciences - The George Washington University

Department of Criminology, Law & Society - University of California at Irvine

Forensics/ Wikipedia Encyclopedia

Forensic Crime Lab AKA Crime Scene Unit

Forensic Science News

(NPR audio production of May 24, 2004) "Dose of Reality: 'CSI' vs. True Las Vegas Crime Lab" by Robert Siegel
NPR's Robert Siegel explores the differences between the world of the popular CBS crime drama CSI and the real Las Vegas crime lab where it is set. Show producer Anthony Zuiker consulted with Linda Errichetto of the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department's Forensics Lab when he created the program a few years ago. And while she says he got many things right, the big departure from realism is in how speedy the work goes on the air. Also, the program puts the lab workers out in the field looking for evidence and dealing with suspects; all that is not part of the work of an actual Forensics Lab worker.

Reading Corner
Forensic Science-Law Reading Center
Guide to Forensic Science and Criminal Justice Programs (Search 170+ Forensic Science Colleges)


The Science of Guns

Firearms Interpretation (Guns and Ammo, Distance Determinations, Gunshot Residue Detection, Restoration)

The Magic Bullet

Wikipedia - Encyclopedia (press release, September 1st, 2005)

Brain Fingerprint Testing

Brain Fingerprinting Laboratories, Inc. has developed and patented EEG/P300 based testing systems that determine with extremely high accuracy whether or not specific information is stored in a person's memory. The test measures individual brain-wave responses to relevant words, pictures or sounds presented by a computer. The measurements are recorded in fractions of a second after the stimulus is presented, before the subject is able to formulate or control a response. In a major milestone for the company, the results of this patented testing methodology have been ruled admissible in court as scientific evidence. The technology has many exciting applications in several very large markets: national security, medical diagnostics, advertising, insurance fraud and in the criminal justice system." Read full text here: Brain Wave Science Com Brain Fingerprinting Laboratories - a new paradigm.


Katja Pumm (IIPPI): Dear Dr. Farwell and Mr. Lisanti,
there are prisoners who are aware of the new technology of Brain Fingerprint Testing and others are not. The laws differ from state to state and I do not want to keep up the hopes of inmates who might be disappointed later.
Could you tell me, in which states your new technology is admissible in court? In which states is it accepted as newly discovered evidence to prove innocence?

Bruce A. Lisanti (Brain Wave Science): Katja, Brain Fingerprinting testing was only reviewed by the Iowa court system. In all of our other cases, the suspect has either plea bargained after testing, or was released. Since the Iowa case followed standards similar to Daubert, we expect that the technology will be ruled admissible on a state-by-state basis as it used. The testing is based on scientific principles that are generally accepted by the scientific community. The P300 area of neurological testing has had several thousand studies already published. We are at very early stages, similar to DNA testing years ago.
Since we are still a small company, it is very difficult to do all of our cases pro-bono. Please let us know how we might be able to help you.

Bruce A. Lisanti (Brain Wave Science): Emmanuelle (Pelois),
How long it takes to develop a test varies by case. In post-conviction cases, the person has been exposed to a lot of the evidence in court, so it takes longer to find items that were not used in court. In a pre-conviction case, developing the test is much easier. The first thing we would do is review the case by phone and see how well we think the testing would apply. If we elected to take the case, it could take several weeks to develop a test. We would also need access to the person. If they are in jail, that also may take some time. Typically, we travel to the person, rather than have them come to Seattle. Expenses are what we incur in plane flights, hotels, etc.
If you would like us to take a preliminary look at the case, please complete the Questionnaire from our website [see above!]. The minimum cost for a test would be $10,000 plus expenses. Thank you.

Behavioural Evidence Analysis

Crime Library. Com (Introduction)

The FBI's Crime Scene Analysis

Investigative Psychology

Behavioural Evidence Analysis


Bite Marks/ Odontology

The Dentist's Role in Forensics

Bite Mark Analysis

Whose Bite Mark is it, Anyway?

How It's Done

Criminal Profiling

Crime Scene Analysis
The FBI’s Crime Scene Analysis involves six steps. They include Profiling Inputs, Decision Process Models, Crime Assessment, The Criminal Profile, The Investigation and The Apprehension. A brief explanation of each step shall be discussed here.

Investigative Psychology
Five aspects of the interaction between the victim and the offender are known as five-factor model. This model includes interpersonal coherence, significance of time and place, criminal characteristics, criminal career, and forensic awareness. Read here.

Behaviourial Evidence Analysis
“One cannot render a thorough criminal profile until the physical evidence has been analysed and interpreted.”

Criminal Psychology

Questia - The World's Largest Online Library

North Carolina Wesleyan College
Online Forensic Psychology Resources

Crime Scene Investigation

The Crime Scene

Crime Scene Kits

Crime Scene Photography

Medical Examiner

The Crime Lab

Forensic Identification - Prints

The Forensic Mind - From Evidence to Theory

Digital Crime Scene Reconstruction

Fingerprints, Footprints, Faces and Earprints

The Persistence of Prints

The Techniques



Barefoot Morphology

DNA Fingerprinting/ Serology

About DNA Fingerprinting

Innocence Project

Mitotyping Technologies, LLC

A Human Mitochondrial Genome Database

Law-Forensic.Com - DNA Technology

Short Tandem Repeat DNA DataBase
Forensic Mathematic

Forensic Anthropology

Bones and skulls
"Anthropology is the study of humankind, culturally and physically, in all times and places. Forensic Anthropology is the application of anthropological knowledge and techniques in a legal context. This involves detailed knowledge of osteology (skeletal anatomy and biology) to aid in the identification and cause of death of skeletal remains, as well as the recovery of remains using archaeological techniques."
Forensic Anthro. Com

American Anthropological Association (AAA)

Forensic Art

Drawings and artistic reconstructions of suspects, victims and criminals
Forensic Photography
Where Art Meets Crime


The Facial Identification Specialist

The Reconstruction of a Face

Age Progression

Computer-Altered Photography: Catching Fugitives

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Forensic Autopsy

Wikipedia Encyclopedia

An Autopsy

The Crime Scene
"The first hour at a crime scene is the most crucial, but it's generally the most inexperienced officers who find the evidence. They have to be trained better to know how protect it, because even experienced officers who know better will get curious and go in and trample evidence."

Forensic Bloodstain Pattern Analysis

Brazoria County Sheriff's Office (TX)

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis Software


Search Look Smart. Com

Forensic Chemistry

ChemLin - Virtual Chemistry Library

Forensic Entomology

"Forensic entomology is the name given to any aspect of the study of insects and their arthropod counterparts that interacts with legal matters."
American Board of Forensic Entomology

American Board of Forensic Entomology/ Missouri

Forensic Entomology. Com

"If you have a case involving entomological evidence and would like to contact a professional forensic entomologist for an initial case consultation, simply complete the form below and you will be contacted. Please note that analysis of entomological evidence is not a free service. The fees charged for the analysis of entomological evidence vary on a per case basis."

Forensic Hypnosis

Forensic Hypnosis for Memory Enhancement

How Hypnosis Works

Hypnotically Refreshed Testimony

Legal Complications

Potential Problems

The Current Status

Forensic Toxicology

Science of Detecting Poisons

American Board of Forensic Toxicology

Forensic toxicology encompasses the measurement of alcohol, drugs and other toxic substances in biological specimens and interpretation of such results in a medicolegal context. The purpose of the American Board of Forensic Toxicology is to establish and enhance voluntary standards for the practice of forensic toxicology and for the examination and recognition of scientists and laboratories providing forensic toxicology services. (A Guide to Experts, Laboratories and Forensic Toxicology Links)

Geographic Profiling

"Geographic profiling is an investigative methodology that uses the locations of a connected series of crimes to determine the most probable area of offender residence. It is generally applied in cases of serial murder, rape, arson, and robbery, though it can be used in single crimes (auto theft, burglary bombing, etc.) that involve multiple scenes or other significant geographic characteristics."
Environmental Criminology Research Inc. (ECRI)

Literary Forensic

Document Analysis

Handwriting Analysis


Department of Pathology/ University of Washington

The American Journal of Pathology

United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology (USCAP)

Polygraph Test/ Lie Detector Test

Department of Defense Polygraph Institute (DoDPI)

American Polygraph Association

The Polygraph Place

The Polygraph Place is the only national website on the Internet where you can locate a Polygraph Examiner anywhere in the United States and find information on Polygraph Associations, Polygraph Schools, Polygraph Equipment, Software and Insurance.
How to choose the best possible polygraph examiner for your test? (Tips)

Touch DNA

Google Search: "Touch DNA"

Trace Evidence

Analysis of Hair, Fiber and Other Trace Evidence

Fiber Analysis

Hair Evidence Analysis

Other Types of Minute Traces, such as glas, dirt/dust, palynology, paint and seeds.


The Origin of Voiceprints

The Spectograph and The Human Voice

How It Works

Standards of Courtroom Admissibility

Voiceprint Analysis Expertise

Junk Science

IIPPI Forum (Junk Science & Destroyed Evidence)

Wikipedia Encyclopedia

Scientific Misconduct-Encyclopedia Labor Law Talk Com

American Bar Association

Innocence Project

Ted Goertzel-Rutgers University, New Jersey

Law-Forensic Com
Forensic reform to improve the accuracy of the criminal justice system

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